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31st July

1451
Jacques Cœur was arrested by order of Charles VII of France on 31st July, 1451. Jacques Cœur was recognized as a French merchant and he was one of the best founders of the trade between the Levant and France. There was no specific reason for the charge against Jacques Cœur, but for this and other suspected crimes the King, on 31st July 1451. The king gave orders for his detention and for the appropriation of his goods, preserving for himself a large sum of money for the battle in Guienne. He remain in jail for long time and later escaped. Charles VII is also called the Victorious. He is also familiar as the Well-Served. He was a sovereign of the House of Valois who governed as King of France years between 1422 and 1461.

1588
On 31st July, 1588, The Spanish Armada was marked off the coast of England. The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships and those ships sailed from La Coruña in August of the year 1588, under the order of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the resolution of accompanying an military from Flanders to attack England. This premeditated purpose was to coup Queen Elizabeth I and her formation of Protestantism in England, with the expectancy that this would put a break to English intrusion in the Spanish Netherlands and to the damage triggered to Spanish wishes by English and Dutch privateering.

1658
Aurangzeb was first announced Mughal sovereign of India on 31st July, 1658. Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad is generally called by the nickname Aurangzeb or by his regnal name Alamgir and he was the 6th and generally measured the last actual Mughal emperor. His supremacy sustained for 49 years from the year 1658 until his demise in the year 1707. Aurangzeb was a distinguished imperialist and during his supremacy, the Mughal Kingdom touched its utmost degree, reigning over approximately all of the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani was an territory in the Indian subcontinent, founded in the year 1526. It was well-known and governed by a Muslim reign with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia.

1741
On 31st July, 1741, Charles Albert of Bavaria conquered Upper Austria and Bohemia. Charles VII was the prince-elector of Bavaria and he served from the year 1726 and Holy Roman Ruler from 24th January 1742 until his end of life in the year 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was the only one not innate of the House of Habsburg to be an emperor in over 3 centuries, though he was associated to that house both by blood and by wedding. Upper Austria is one of the 9 states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on the Czech Republic and Germany as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria, Salzburg and Styria. Bohemia is the largest historical part of the Czech lands and westernmost what is called the present-day Czech Republic.

1856
Christchurch, New Zealand was commissioned as a city on 31st July, 1865. Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and it is the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch community zone lied on the South Island’s east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula. It is home to 389,700 inhabitants, making it New Zealand’s 3rd most-populous city behind Auckland and Wellington.

1913
On 31st July, 1913, the Balkan States signed an settlement in Bucharest. The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic part what is located in Southeastern and Eastern Europe with many and borderline borders. The name of this area was taken from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea on the south and southeast, the Ionian Sea on the southwest and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. Bucharest is the largest city and capital of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial center. It is positioned in the southeast of the country.

1971
During the Apollo program, Apollo 15 astronauts became the 1st to trip in a lunar rover on 31st July, 1971. The Apollo program is also called as Project Apollo and it was the 3rd United States human spaceflight program what approved out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration which dexterous landing the 1st humans on the Moon from the year 1969 to year 1972. It is the first considered during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s management as a 3 man spacelab to trail the one-man Project Mercury which put the 1st Americans in space, Apollo was later enthusiastic to President John F. Kennedy’s national goal of “landing a man on the Moon and recurring him securely to the Earth” by the end of the year 1960s, which he planned in an address to Congress on 25th May, 1961. Apollo 15 was the 9th operated mission of the United States’ Apollo program, the 4th to land on the Moon, and the 8th positive operated mission. It was called “J missions”, long stays on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions. A lunar rover or Moon rover is a space exploration vehicle and it was designed to transfer or move the surface of the Moon. Some specific rovers are special and those have been planned to transport members of a human spaceflight team, such as the U.S. Apollo program’s Lunar Roving Automobile. Three countries have had rovers on the Moon: the United States, the Soviet Union and China; Japan and India presently have deliberate missions.

1987
On 31st July, 1987, a tornado occurred in Edmonton, Canada. The Edmonton tornado of 1987 is also called as Black Friday to Edmontonians. It was a serious, powerful and overwhelming tornado what ragged through the eastern part of Edmonton, Canada, Alberta and parts of neighboring Strathcona County on the afternoon of Friday, 31st July, 1987. This was one of seven other tornadoes what hit in central Alberta the same day.
2006
On 31st July, 2006, Fidel Castro handed over power to Raúl who was his brother. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban radical and popular politician. He ruled the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from the year 1959 to year 1976 and then he became President between the years 1976 to 2008. Politically a Cuban and Marxist–Leninist nationalist, Castro also aided as the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from the year 1961 until year 2011. Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz is a Cuban politician. He was the President of the Council of Ministers of Cuba since 2008.

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